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Reported Speech

Gramatica:

Cuando queremos comunicar o informar de lo que otra persona ha dicho, hay dos maneras de hacerlo: utilizando el estilo directo o el estilo indirecto.

Direct Speech (El estilo directo)

Si deseamos informar exactamente lo que otra persona ha dicho utilizamos el estilo directo. Con este estilo lo que la persona ha dicho se coloca entre comillas y deberá ser palabra por palabra.

  • "I am visiting my gramma at the weekend," she said.("Voy a visitar a mi abuelita el fin de semana," ella dijo.)
  • "Have you got any money I could borrow?" he asked.("¿Tienes dinero que puedas prestarme?" él preguntó.)
  • Elizabeth said, "I love dancing." (Elizabeth dijo, "Me encanta bailar.")
  • Victor asked, "Would you like to have dinner with me on Saturday?"(Victor preguntó, "¿Te gustaría cenar conmigo el Sábado?")

Reported Speech (El estilo indirecto)

El estilo indirecto no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser palabra por palabra y el tiempo verbal cambia. A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra persona. Por otro lado, para reportar frases interrogativas donde la respuesta requiere un "Sí" o un "No" se usa "if" o "whether".

Reportar frases positivas y negativas

Reportar preguntas

Para reportar preguntas utiliza el verbo "ask" en su tiempo pasado simple; "asked", inmediatamente después del sujeto.

Sí/No preguntas

Si quiere reportar preguntas donde su respuesta requiera un sí o un no usa "whether" o "if".

Ejemplos:

Directo speech Reported speech
"Do you eat meat?" she asked. "¿Cómes carne?" ella preguntó. She asked if I liked meat.
She asked whether I liked meat. Ella preguntó que si comía carne.

Ambas frases en estilo indirecto de arriba tienen el mismo significado.

Wh- preguntas

Para reportar preguntas que empiezan con who, what, where, when, how, which + el verbo be, coloca el verbo be al final de la frase. No se utilza "if" o "whether" ni tampoco los verbos auxiliares "do" o "did", y la estructura de la oración debe ser similar a la forma afirmativa, no interrogativa. Utiliza asked en lugar de said.

Ejemplos:

Direct Speech Reported Speech
"Where are you?", Isabel asked. Isabel asked where I was. NO: Isabel asked where was I.
"Who is your English teacher?" my mum asked. My mum asked who my English teacher was. NO: My mum asked who was my English teacher.
"What was your favourite song four year ago?", she asked. She asked what my favourite song had been four years ago. NO: She asked what had been my favourite song four years ago.
"Where did you go last night?", Lupita asked. Lupita asked where I had gone the previous night. NO: Lupita asked where did I go last night.
"Is Leslie your sister?" she asked. "¿Es tu hermana Leslie?" preguntó ella. She asked whether Leslie was my sister. Ella preguntó si Leslie era mi hermana.
"Why is blue your favourite colour?" Amelia asked. "¿Porqué el azul es tu color favorito?" Amelia asked why blue was my favourite colour. Amelia preguntó porqué el azul era mi color favorito.
"Why are they sad?" Brenda asked. "¿Porqué estan triste?" Brenda preguntó. Brenda asked why they were sad. Brenda preguntó porqué estaban triste.

Observa que en los dos últimos ejemplos de arriba el verbo be no está al final de la frase.

Los tiempos verbales retroceden un tiempo y van asi:

Direct SpeechReported Speech
Presente SimplePasado Simple
"I am happy to see him", Zandi said. Zandi dijo: "Estoy felíz de verlo (a él).Zandi said (that) she was happy to see him. Zandi dijo que estaba felíz de verlo.
"Where is my mobile?", he asked. "¿Donde está mi movíl?" el preguntó.He asked where his mobile was. El preguntó donde estaba su móvil.
Gema asked me, "Are you hungry?" Gema preguntó ¿Tienes hambre?Gema asked me whether I was hungry. Gema preguntó que si tenía hambre.
Presente ContínuoPasado Contínuo
"Lucy is talking to the teacher," he said. "Lucy está hablando con el maestro", él dijo.He said (that) Lucy was talking to the teacher. El dijo que Lucy estaba hablando con el maestro.
She asked, "Are you doing your homework?" Ella preguntó "¿Estas haciendo tu tarea?"She asked whether I was doing my homework. Ella preguntó que si estaba haciendo mi tarea.
"Why are you singing this song?", my mom asked. "¿Porqué estas cantando esta canción?" mi mamá preguntó.My mom asked why I was singing that song. Mi mamá preguntó porqué estaba cantando esa canción.
"Are you watching the same movie again?" Kiara asked. "¿Estas viendo la misma película otra vez?" Kiara pregunt&ó. Kiara asked if I was watching the same movie again. Kiara preguntó si estaba viendo la misma película otra vez.
Pasado SimplePasado Perfecto Simple
"We didn't go out last night", they said. "Nosotros no salimos anoche" ellos dijeron.They said they hadn't gone out the previous night Ellos dijeron que no habían salido la noche anterior..
"Were you home last Saturday night?", Klaudia asked. "¿Estabas en casa la noche del Sábado pasado?" Klaudia preguntó.Klaudia asked if I had been home the previous Saturday. Klaudia preguntó si yo había estado en casa la noche del Sábado pasado.
"Did you see the accident?" the police asked. "¿Viste el accidente?" la policía preguntó.The police asked me if I had seen the accident. La policía preguntó que si había visto el accidente.
"When was your English class? Rosi asked. "¿Cuando fué tu clase de Inglés?" Rosi preguntó. Rosi asked when my English class had been. Rosi preguntó cuando había sido mi clase de Inglés.
"Where were my car keys?", dad asked. "¿Donde estaban las llaves de mi coche?" papá preguntó. Dad asked where his car keys had been. Papá preguntó donde habían estado las llaves de su coche.
Pasado ContínuoPasado Perfecto Contínuo
"I was working late last week," Vicki said. "Estaba trabajando hasta tarde la semana pasada." Vicki dijo.Vicki said she had been working late the previous week. Vicki dijo que había estado trabajando hasta tarde la semana pasada.
"Were you playing your guitar when I called?" Drew asked. "¿Estabas tocando tu guitarra cuando llamé?"Drew asked if I had been playing my guitar when he called. Drew preguntó que si yo había estado tocando mi guitarra cuando llamó.
"Who were you having dinner with?", my boyfriend asked. "¿Con quién estabas cenando?" mi novio preguntó.My boyfriend asked who I had been having dinner with. Mi novio preguntó con quién había estado cenando.
Presente Perfecto SimplePasado Perfecto Simple
Evelin said, "I have already seen this film". Evelin dijo, "Ya he visto la película."Evelin said she had already seen that film. Evelin dijo que ya había visto la película.
"We haven't been to Palenque", they said. "No hemos estado en Palenque." ellos dijeron.They said they hadn't been to Palenque. Ellos dijeron que no habian estado en Palenque.
"Have you tried Sushi before?", Roger asked. "¿Has probado Sushi anteriormente?" Roger preguntó.Roger asked me whether I had tried Sushi before. Roger preguntó que si habia probado Sushi anteriormente.
"Where have you been?" the teacher asked. "¿Donde has estado?" el maestro preguntó. The teacher asked where I had been. El maestro preguntó donde habia estado yo.
Presente Perfecto ContínuoPasado Perfecto Contínuo
"I've been studying French for three years", Karla said. "Yo he estado estudiando Frances durante tres años." Karla dijo.Karla said she had been studying French for three years. Karla dijo que ella habia estado estudiando Frances durante tres años.
Frank said, "They've been living in Merida for over six years now." Frank dijo: "Ellos han estado viviendo en Mérida más de seis años."Frank said they'd been living in Merida for over six years. Frank dijo que ellos habian estado viviendo en Mérida por más de seis años.
"Has she been waiting long?", Paul asked. "¿Ha estado esperando ella por mucho tiempo?" Paul preguntó.Paul asked whether she had been waiting long. Paul preguntó si ella habia estado esperando por mucho tiempo.
"Who have you been sleeping with?" my ex asked. "¿Con quien has estado durmiendo?" mi ex preguntó. My ex asked who I had been sleeping with. Mi ex preguntó con quien habia estado durmiendo.
Pasado Perfecto SimplePasado Perfecto Simple (sin cambio)
"We'd been to Jalisco before," she said.She said they'd been to Jalisco before.
"Why hadn't you visited your grandparents?" her friend asked. Her friend asked why she hadn't visited her grandparents.
Pasado Perfecto ContínuoPasado Perfecto Contínuo (sin cambio)
"I'd been working for CETEC for three years before I moved to California", he said.He said he'd been working for CETEC for three years before he moved to California.
"Had she seen anything like this?" Gus asked. Gus asked whether she had seen anything like that.

No cambiamos el tiempo verbal cuando hablamos de algo que todavía es verdad, o que es en el futuro.

Direct SpeechReported Speech
"I am an Architec", he said.He said he is an Architect.
Alejandra said, "Bety is sick".Alejandra said Bety is sick.
"We are going to Progreso beach this weekend", they said.They said they are going to Progreso beach this weekend.
"I will wash the car tomorrow" my brother said.
(Lavaré el coche mañana.)
My brother said he is washing the car tomorrow.

Modal Verbs (Los verbos modales)

El tiempo verbal cambia en el estilo indirecto también con algunos de los verbos modales:

Direct SpeechReported Speech
WillWould
"I'll go to the movies tomorrow," John said.John said he would go to the movies the followin day.
"Will you help me move?" she asked.She asked me if I would help her move.
CanCould
Debra said, "Allen can work tomorrow."Debra said Allen could work the following day.
"Can you open the window, please?", he asked.He asked me if I could open the window.
MustHad to
"You must wear your seatbelt," mom said.My mom said I had to wear my seatbelt.
She said, "You must work tomorrow."She said I had to work the next day.
ShallShould
"Shall we go to the beach today?" Tom asked.Tom asked if we should go to the beach that day.
"What shall we do tonight?" she asked.She asked me what we should do that night.
MayMight/Could
Jane said, "I may not be in class next week."Jane said she might not be in class the following week.
"May I use the bathroom, please?" the boy asked.The boy asked if he could use the bathroom.

Con "would", "could", "should", "might" y "ought to", el tiempo verbal no cambia.


Actualizado: 2016-04-08 10:12:14

  • reported speech
  • direct speech
  • estilo directo
  • estilo indirecto
  • reported sentences
  • reported questions
  • gramatica ingles
  • lecciones ingles
  • cursos ingles merida
  • clases ingles merida

Haz el ejercicio Reported Speech